FISH BREEDING TECHNIQUES

 

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I. PRE-BREEDING

 

S.NO.

PARTICULARS

 

REMARKS

Brood Fish Care

 

 

i)

STOCKING

 

 

 

Brood fish should be raised and maintained with the stocking rate of 400 to 500 kgs/acre.  It is preferable to stock 400 kgs fish/acre. Different species of fish should be kept in different ponds.

 

Availability of quality brood stock has a pivotal role in the successful operation of a hatchery. As such healthy stock should be selected and greater attention be focused towards maintenance of proper hydro-biological condition to ensure sustained growth.

ii)

FERTILIZATION

 

 

 

Bed manuring of the brood stock ponds be carried out with 4000-5000 kgs per acre organic manure (cowdung) prior to water filling and such ponds be periodically fertilized to maintain productivity to desirable extent with 1000-1500 kgs organic manure & 8 kgs Inorganic fertilizer per acre per fortnight, subject to qualitative and quantitative fluctuations of plankton level.

 

Preferably when the water temperature ranges between
25-32C.

At the time of shifting of brood fish treatment with sodium chloride or KMNO4 (Potassium permagnate) be given.

iii)

SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING

 

 

 

Supplementary feeding of brood stock should be done with Rice polish, Maiz glutin and Mollasses in the ratio of 7:2:1 at the rate of
2-3% body weight of stocked fish per day.

Note:  Brood stock of grass carp be fed with green fodder (Chatala, Barseen etc.) daily as per the requirement of fish.

 

 

II)

BREEDING

 

 

 

i)  Selection of Brood Fish

Brood fish selected at the time of induced spawning should be healthy and fully ripe.

 

 

ii) Sex Ratio

Male       :               Female

1              :               1

iii)  Hormone Dosage (Ovaprim)

 

It is to ensure breeding without fail and improve efficiency in breeding results.

 

Fish Species

 

i) Ctenopharyngodon idella (Grass carp)

Total dosage of Female

0.6 0.7 ml/kg

Total dosage of Male

0.1 to 0.2 ml/kg

In case of proper maturity of brood stock preferred doze should be 0 6 ml/kg for male & 0.1 ml/kg for female. Fertilization is executed only through stripping after 10-12 hours of hormone infection.

 

ii) Aristichthys nobilis
(Big head)

0.6 0.7 ml/kg

0.1 to 0.2 ml/kg

-do-

 

iii) Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Silver carp)

0.6 0.7 ml/kg

0.1 to 0.2 ml/kg

-do-

 

iv) Catla catla  (Thaila)

0.5 ml/kg

0.1 ml/kg

-do-

 

v) Labeo rohita (Rohu)

0.3 0.4 ml/kg

0.1  ml/kg

-do-

 

vi) Cirrhina mrigala
(Mori)

0.3 0.4 ml/kg

0.1  ml/kg

-do-

III)

POST BREEDING

 

 

 

Incubation

 

 

 

i)   Circular tank

a)  Quantity of eggs

 

8,00,000 to 10,00,000 lacs in a tank of 5 cft dia.

 

b)  Water Supply

 

The supply of water in circular tank be arranged between 22-25 litres per minute.

 

c)  Screen

 

Screen at the central exit pipe should be of preferably bolton  cloth or nylon cloth and the number of mesh be 4200 or slightly above per sq. inch.

 

ii) Mc. Donald Jar (Glass Jar)

a)  Water Supply

 

Water supply to each Mc. Donald Jar should be regulated with 1- 1.5 litres per minute.

 

b)  Quantity of eggs

 

15000 2000 eggs / Jar

 

Nursing of Hatchling

Following is duration period for nursing of hatchlings till these became first feeding larvae/fry.

 

Feeding of Yolk fry be avoided.

 

Hours

72 80

80 96

Water Temperature

27 28oC

25 27oC

Fry is ready for stocking when air bladder is formed and yolk sac is nearing absorption.

 

 

Preparation of Fry Ponds

i)  The pond should be sun dried before the breeding schedule is commenced.

 

To ensure dis-infection of pond soil.

 

ii)  The pond should be fertilized with organic manure (Cowdung) @ 4000 -5000 kgs/acre subject to qualitative & quantitative fluctuations of plankton level.

 

Dry manure is preferable. The fertilization should be executed the day fertilized eggs are obtained.

 

iii) Fill the pond with water to a depth of 1.5 feet 2.00 feet and maintain it.

 

Addition of water should be managed just after the pond is fertilized.

 

iv)  Observe the production of micro fauna after 48 hours of fertilization.

 

At a temperature of 25 32oC, after 48 hours of fertilization, protozoans and  Rotifers start appearing. After 72 hours the first food (protozoans and rotifers) are produced fairly abundant.

 

v)  Add insecticide, @ 0.5 1 ppm. In case dry pond is not available, netout the stock from the fry receiving pond as far as possible, reduce the water to minimum possible level. Assure extermination by Rotenon or any other recommended insecticide @ 1ppm. Manure/ prepare the pond as per doze referred in (ii & iii)) above. Add insecticide.

 

Only insecticide mild toxicity, preferably of organophosphate group be used. Check toxicity of the insecticide after 48 hours of its addition prior to release of stock-survival of fry in a sample of water collected from treated pond upto 4 hours will give satisfactory results.

 

Stocking of Fry

i)   Rate of Stocking

 

                4,00,000 fry/acre

ii)  At the time of stocking of fry care, should be taken to ensure acclimatization of  fry with pond water temperature.

 

 

 

To avoid temperature stock to fry.

 

iii)  Start raising  water level of pond by 2 to 3 per day till it reaches the depth of 3 feet after the stocking of fry.

iv)   Start feeding fry with artificial feed after
10 14 days of stocking of fry.

v)   Feed ingredients may rice polish + Maiz glutin (30%) in fin powdered form) with the ratio of protein 8:1 respectively @ 5% of total weight of fry/day.

vi)   Start fertilization of the pond with 1000 1500 kgs cowdung & 8 kg inorganic fertilizer, subject to qualitative & quantitative fluctuation of plankton level.